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STRONG BICAMERALISM IN USA AND THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY: SOURCES OF REFORM OF EU COUNCIL

Dario Čepo ; Faculty of Law, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia

Fulltext: pdf (148 KB), Croatian, Pages 163 – 189

Abstracts
Institutions of the European Union have been reforming since the very first
moment of the EU’s existence. They have been adapting to the needs of time
and under the challenge viagra retail price walgreens of new political circumstances. Systematic reform
has been pharmacy software systems canada further encouraged by recent criticism of democratic deficit, the concept
that is often linked with is it legal to buy viagra online uk the EU. This paper argues that by using the experience
and institutional structure of the upper houses of some generic cialis tadalista national genericcialis-rxtopstore parliaments
this deficit could be lowered. The case-study in focus is the Council
(of the European Union). The author argues that the nearest possible sources
for reforms of the Council may be found in the practice of the US Senate and
German Bundesrat. In both American and German cases we are faced with the
parliaments with strong tradition of bicameralism. In both of them, the upper
house represents strong territorial units. In addition, the Senate advair inhaler canada pharmacy and over the counter viagra adelaide Bundesrat
are important actors in policy-making. Thus, they can serve as a good source
of ideas and institutional solutions that may be applicable to the Council too.

Keywords
Strong Bicameralism; Upper House of Parliament; US Senate; Bundesrat; Council of the European Union

Snažni bikameralizam u SAD-u i SR Njemačkoj: izvor za reformu Vijeća Europske unije

Dario Čepo ; Pravni fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, Zagreb, Hrvatska

Puni tekst: pdf (148 KB), Hrvatski, Str. 163 – 189

Sažetak
Institucije se Europske unije reformiraju od trenutka kada su utemeljene, prilagođavajući
se na taj način potrebama vremena i zahtjevima novih političkih
snaga. Potrebu za reformom europskih institucija dodatno je potaknula kritika
demokratskog deficita Europske unije. Cilj je ovog rada pokazati da se demokratski
deficit može otkloniti reformom najvažnije europske institucije – Vijeća
Europske unije – utemeljenom na postojećim spoznajama o uređenju sličnih
tijela. Riječ je o drugim domovima u federalnim političkim sustavima, za primjer
kojih su uzeti Senat SAD-a i Bundesrat SR Njemačke. Temeljni su to primjeri
snažnog bikameralizma u kojem subnacionalne teritorijalne jedinice imaju
značajnu mogućnost utjecati na odluke koje se donose na višoj razini vlasti.

Ključne riječi
snažni bikameralizam; drugi dom; Senat; Bundesrat; Vijeće

THE CONCEPT OF NATIONAL MINORITIES AND THEIR POLITICAL REPRESENTATION: THE CASE OF CROATIA

Milan Mesić ; Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia Fulltext: pdf (137 KB), Croatian, Pages 107 – 131

Abstracts The author first deals with the concept of national minority, presenting various attempts of their legal and conceptual defining. Since there is no generally accepted definition of national minorities, even within the EU, there are still controversies on the issue of defining a group as “national minority”. In addition, there are disputes over the issue of representation and political-juridical protection of

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minorities. At the same time such international legal uncertainty allows for broad flexibility in conceptualising and implementing instruments for protection and representation. The article focuses also on some of these models, especially when it comes to Croatia. We argue that there is no clarity in who constitutes a national minority in Croatia, and thus the practice of political representation remains driven by political considerations rather than by principles. This is a source of inconsistency in legal solutions for parliamentary representation of national minorities. The author argues in favour of special representation of national minorities in the Parliament and for the instrument of double vote for citizens who belong to national minorities. This instrument is justified also because of the very significant contribution that national minorities have given to Croatian society in the past.

Keywords Conceptual Debates on National Minorities; National Minorities in Croatia; Political Representation; Minority Representatives in Croatian Parliament; Multiculturalism

Pojam nacionalnih manjina i njihovo političko predstavljanje: slučaj Hrvatske

Milan Mesić ; Filozofski fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, Zagreb, Hrvatska

Puni tekst: pdf (137 KB), Hrvatski, Str. 107 – 131

Sažetak
Autor se prvo bavi pojmom nacionalnih manjina, prikazujući razne, ali rijetke
pokušaje njihova pravnog i konceptualnoga određenja. Budući ne postoji
općeprihvaćena definicija nacionalnih manjina, čak ni u Europskoj uniji, to
stalno otvara kontroverzije o njihovu shvaćanju i instrumentima njihove političko-
pravne zaštite, ali i omogućuje državama potpisnicama konvencija o
manjinama veliku fleksibilnost u njihovu tumačenju i provođenju. Druga je
tema, povezana s prvom, pitanje političkoga predstavljanja nacionalnih manjina
na parlamentarnoj državnoj razini. U članku se raspravlja o prednostima
i nedostacima različitih modela manjinskoga predstavništva i zaključuje da je
u svakom slučaju važno uključiti manjinske predstavnike u nacionalne parlamente.
U slučaju Hrvatske pokazuje se da ni zakonodavac ni politička teorija
nisu osmislili koncept nacionalne manjine koji bi odgovarao hrvatskoj etničkoj
multikulturalnosti, što pokazuje i krajnje raznorodna lista službeno priznatih
‘nacionalnih manjina’. Cijela rasprava usmjerena je na kraju na pitanje nedorečenosti
i proturječnosti parlamentarnih mandata manjinskih predstavnika, koji
(više)etničkim malobrojnim glasovima dobivaju opći politički mandat.

Ključne riječi
pojam nacionalne manjine; nacionalne manjine u Hrvatskoj; političko predstavljanje; manjinski zastupnici u Hrvatskom saboru; multikulturalnost