Arhive kategorije: Sažetak

The EU Accession Process: Western Balkans vs EU-10

Review article

Tanja Miščević ; Faculty of Political Science, University of Belgrade
Mojmir Mrak ; Faculty of Economics, University of Ljubljana

Fulltext: english, pdf (298 KB) pages 185-204 cite

Abstracts
The article discusses main differences in the EU enlargement strategy/process between the one applied for the big-bang Eastern enlargement in 2004/2007 and the one being used for the EU accession of the Western Balkan countries. Within this framework, the article focuses on the key drivers that have contributed to the slowing down of the EU accession process for these countries over the last decade. Among others, these drivers include some traditional ones, such as lessons from the EU-10 enlargement and general “enlargement fatigue” in quite a number of EU member states, as well as a number of more recent ones, such as the consequences of the economic crisis, the migrant/refugee crisis and the Brexit. The reduced appetite of the EU member states for Western Balkan enlargement has been reflected in the reshaped EU enlargement strategy that is now based on the so-called “fundamentals first” approach with the rule of law, early resolution of bilateral issues and strengthened economic governance as its key pillars. Besides, the enlargement process is run today much more on the intergovernmental basis than this was the case during the large Eastern enlargement.

Keywords
European Union; EU Enlargements; Western Balkans; Accession; Regionalism

Hrčak ID: 190343

URI
http://hrcak.srce.hr/190343

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Potential Adherents of Radical Islam in Europe: Methods of Recruitment and the Age of Perpetrators in Acts of Terror

Review article

Nikola Brzica ; Faculty of Political Sciences, University of Zagreb

Fulltext: english, pdf (464 KB) pages 161-184 cite

Abstracts
This article’s objective is to categorize potential jihadists in Europe and provide an overview of contemporary methods for their recruitment. Taking into account the ubiquity of the Internet and social networking platforms, and the fact that younger generations are spending an ever increasing amount of time using contemporary communication technology, this article focuses on those recruitment methods that make use of social networking platforms and mobile applications for the spread of extremist propaganda, as well as for communication with potential adherents. An analysis of the age structure of individuals involved in the planning and carrying out of terrorist acts in Europe from November of 2015 to September of 2017 supports a hypothesis that contemporary recruitment methods are especially effective in targeting a younger demographic. In addition, this article negates the importance of traditional physical exposure to radical behavior, which serves to explain the increasing number of terrorist attacks in Europe conducted by radicalized citizens of European countries.

Keywords
Islamic Radicalism; Terrorism; Jihad; Foreign Fighters; Islamic State

Hrčak ID: 190342

URI
http://hrcak.srce.hr/190342

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Possibilities of Assessing the Changing Nature of International Politics in the Coming Multi-Order World

Original scientific paper

Mladen Lišanin ; Institute for Political Studies, Belgrade

Fulltext: english, pdf (615 KB) pages 143-160 cite

Abstracts
In her recent, praised and prized paper, ‘The Coming Multi-Order World’, Trine Flockhart has argued that the current international system is moving towards one consisting of several different orders ‘nested within an overall international system’. When he claimed something similar in his book World Order, Henry Kissinger was labeled as a constructivist by some commentators. In Kissinger’s case, these changes are particularly consequential, given that they bring about the unprecedented danger of simultaneous breakup within and across the many orders of today’s world. The author’s intention here is twofold: on the one hand, to examine what are the changes in the very notion of international politics, given the transformation of classical concepts such as interests, identities, sovereignty, legitimacy, conflict and cooperation. On the other hand, and this is the central issue, to look for suitable theoretical frameworks to successfully grasp the changing nature of international politics and the realities of the coming multi-order world. The presumed answer is that the nature of the incoming changes produces the need for more subtle and complex, cross-over theories of international relations. As it is obvious from Kissinger’s example, traditional realist theory and social constructivism seem to converge irresistibly. In that sense, ‘hybrid’ theories such as Barkin’s realist constructivism and ‘liberal realism’ of the English School seem to be gaining on traditional grand theories in regard to their relevance and research potential.

Keywords
Constructivism; International Politics; International System; Multipolarity; Realism

Hrčak ID: 190341

URI
http://hrcak.srce.hr/190341

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Socializing with the Out-Group: Testing the Contact Hypothesis among School Students in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Original scientific paper

Matthew Thomas Becker ; The University of Mississippi

Fulltext: english, pdf (278 KB) pages 126-142 cite

Abstracts
The purpose of this article is to test the contact hypothesis among self-identifying Bosniak, Croat, Serb, and Bosnian high school seniors in Bosnia and Herzegovina, using the Other-Group Orientation Scale (Roberts et al., 1999). This article finds that attending a ‘non-appropriate’ ethnic school statistically increases tolerance of out-group members, which conforms to the predictions of the contact hypothesis, originally put forth by Allport (1958). This field research also found that secondary schools are largely homogenous in the country, thus preventing high levels of cross-ethnic contact in schools, which was expected. This article represents the first post-war, countrywide quantitative testing of the contact hypothesis.

Keywords
Bosnia and Herzegovina; Contact Hypothesis; Socialization; Other- Group Orientation

Hrčak ID: 190340

URI
http://hrcak.srce.hr/190340

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Constitutional Design and Cultural Cleavage: UNESCO and the Struggle for Cultural Heritage in Kosovo

Review article

Stefan Surlić ; Faculty of Political Science, University of Belgrade

Fulltext: english, pdf (469 KB) pages 109-125 cite

Abstracts
Since gaining independence in 2008, Kosovo’s constitutional design has been based on the principles of civil society normatively respecting the rights of all minorities. Even though no open conflict has taken place since 1999, except for individual interethnic incidents, Kosovo is still at the stage of post-conflict management. The Serbian community feels strongly attached to Serbia, while the Albanians do not want to give political autonomy to the Kosovo Serbs because they fear this could lead to a permanent division and eventual separatism. Based on research, the author pinpoints that a key cleavage is essentially the cultural one. The recent vote in the Assembly of UNESCO has intensified the hostile tone between Belgrade and Priština. Serbia considers Kosovo its Holy Land, the “Serbian Jerusalem”, due to a large number of Orthodox churches and monasteries found there, while the Albanian side believes that this cultural treasure inherently belongs to Kosovo and that the Orthodox monasteries were built on the foundations of Illyrian temples. This paper analyzes the imposed political dimension of cultural heritage with religious and mythological backgrounds. There is a great desire among the Kosovo authorities that it become a member of UNESCO, thereby reaffirming its international legal personality and stopping the efforts of the Serbs to have the Orthodox cultural heritage still listed as Serbian. The issue of cultural heritage has a direct impact on interethnic relations and contains the capacity to paralyze all other multiethnic institutions. The author analyzes the difference between the normative framework and the implementation of mechanisms for the protection of cultural heritage as well as the activities of Belgrade and Priština in the battle for ownership of cultural heritage.

Keywords
Cultural Heritage; UNESCO; Kosovo; Serbian Orthodox Church; Post-Conflict Management

Hrčak ID: 190348

URI
http://hrcak.srce.hr/190348

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Socio-political and Religious Dynamics in Kosovo from the Post-Secularist Perspective

Review article

Ardian Gola ; Department of Sociology, University of Prishtina, Fakulteti Filozofik
Gëzim Selaci ; Department of Sociology, University of Prishtina, Fakulteti Filozofik

Fulltext: english, pdf (311 KB) pages 85-108 cite

Abstracts
Building on the post-secularist theory, this paper argues for a need to rethink secularism in the case of contemporary Kosovo in a context of ‘return of religion’. Political secularism as an inevitable fact and political norm, in the sense of ‘structural differentiation’ of the religious institution from other institutions, could be upheld in Kosovo. However, social secularism concerning values, practices, social habits and everyday life, or public sphere in short, poses a problem in a global post-secular context from which Kosovo is not isolated. Moreover, rather than a principle of state’s equidistance from the different worldviews competing in the public space, secularism in Kosovo is used as an identity tool or an instrument of identity politics aiming at distancing its society from religion as a way to affirm its ‘western orientation’ and secular tradition. This rigid stance is particularly directed at Islam and Islamic practices.

Keywords
Kosovo; Islam; Secularism; Post-Secularism; National Identity

Hrčak ID: 190339

URI
http://hrcak.srce.hr/190339

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Gaining Political Power by Utilizing Opportunity Structures: An Analysis of the Conservative Religious-Political Movement in Croatia

Review article

Antonija Petričušić ; Chair of Sociology, Faculty of Law, University of Zagreb
Mateja Čehulić ; Chair of Sociology, Faculty of Law, University of Zagreb
Dario Čepo ; Chair of Sociology, Faculty of Law, University of Zagreb

Fulltext: english, pdf (324 KB) pages 61-84 cite

Abstracts
This paper explores a connection between religion and politics in Croatia by analyzing the conservative civic initiative “In the Name of the Family” (U ime obitelji). It is a part of a broader religious-political movement, which emerged over the course of the last decade, that is connected to other international conservative organizations and initiatives. They advocate for a decrease of secular influence on the family, oppose sexual and reproductive rights, and insist on the primacy of religious freedoms. The political nature of the movement manifests itself through multiple attempts to scrap the legislation and practices of both state and private institutions that are contradicting the value system of the Christian (Catholic) majority. The religious-political nexus of the movement is confirmed by its continuous involvement in policy-making, here manifested through the use of direct democracy institutes.

Keywords
Religious-Political Movement; Contentious Politics; Opportunity Structure; Referendum; Same-Sex Marriage

Hrčak ID: 190338

URI
http://hrcak.srce.hr/190338

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The Political Economy of Crony Capitalism: A Case Study of the Collapse of the Largest Croatian Conglomerate

Original scientific paper

Željko Ivanković ; Portal Ideje.hr, Zagreb

Fulltext: english, pdf (317 KB) pages 40-60 cite

Abstracts
Initially, cronyism was considered to be specific to Asian countries. Further analyses recognized characteristics of crony capitalism all over the world. According to the model presented in the paper, crony capitalism emerges in circumstances of political instability as a solution for the problem of economic growth. The model enables the analysis of cronyism in Croatia and an investigation into the question whether features of crony capitalism were a consequence of privatisation and the transition from socialism. The paper concludes that cronyism is primarily a political phenomenon and that crony capitalism cannot be reduced to its economic effects. Growth serves as a justification for the system of privileges. The collapse of Agrokor, the largest Croatian conglomerate, illustrates the development of crony capitalism in Croatia and its relation to the privatisation process.

Keywords
Crony Capitalism; Rent Seeking; Mutual Hostage Model; Transition; Privatisation

Hrčak ID: 190337

URI
http://hrcak.srce.hr/190337

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Reconstructing the Intractable: The Croatia-Slovenia Border Dispute and Its Implications for EU Enlargement

Original scientific paper

Thomas Bickl ; Duisburg-Essen University, Institute for Political Science

Fulltext: english, pdf (670 KB) pages 7-39 cite

Abstracts
This study seeks to reconstruct two crucial phases in the management of the protracted territorial conflict between Croatia and Slovenia over the common State border: (i) The causal mechanisms of the genesis of the Arbitration Agreement during the Croatian accession negotiations with the EU 2008/2009, and (ii) the conflict dynamics during the subsequent arbitration procedure before the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) 2012-2017. The method employed is process tracing based on elite interviews (politicians and civil servants) and informal documents. The arbitral award from 29 June 2017 is the end of a formal process, but not of the substantive dispute. Bilateral conflict between an EU Member State (Slovenia) and a Candidate Country (Croatia at the time) creates de facto add-on political conditionality. The Croatia-Slovenia case has profound implications on the SFRY successor States and EU enlargement in the Western Balkans.

Keywords
EU Enlargement; Arbitration; Croatia; Slovenia; Serbia

Hrčak ID: 190336

URI
http://hrcak.srce.hr/190336

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