Combined electoral systems were in expansion at the end of the 20th century
and thus some authors considered them to be the electoral model for the future.
Accordingly, there has been an increasing number of academic attempts
to define and conceptualise these complex electoral systems. So far, two major
interpretative streams emerged: structural (or mechanical) which is linked
with Canadian scholars of election studies A. Blais and L. Massicotte, and
the outcome-approach, largely developed by American scholars M.S. Shugart
and P.M. Wattenberg. However, there is still much to add to these two interpretations.
The author argues that a combined electoral system is specific for
its combining of two elements: 1) the elections are based on two different levels
of voting and of distribution of seats (name-based and list-based) and 2)
they develop a specific model of voting – with two votes per each voter (one
for an individual candidate and the other for a list). When combined, these
two elements create institutional setting for electoral competition, and thus the
candidates and the parties are requested to develop more complex electoral
strategies than in other types of electoral systems.
Combined Electoral Systems; Structural Approach; Outcome-approach; Strategies of Action