Breaking the Glass Ceiling: the Role of the UN and the EU in Promoting Women in Politics

Review article

Ružica Jakešević ; Faculty of Political Science, University of Zagreb
Đana Luša ; Faculty of Political Science, University of Zagreb

Fulltext: english, pdf (334 KB) pages 33-63 cite

Politics has traditionally been reserved for men, meaning it has been very difficult‎ for women to enter at the highest level. The progress in gender equality‎ in politics has been uneven so far and significant differences exist among‎ states and regions. The male dominance in state politics has translated into the‎ international realm in international entities and multilateral political platforms‎ as well. Although these entities gradually introduced the principles of gender‎ equality and promoted an increased participation of women in political life in‎ their constituent states through key documents, they face the same problem –‎ how to ensure at least a formal and descriptive representation of women at the‎ highest level and how to translate stated or symbolic gender equality from key‎ documents into practice (symbolic to substantive representation). The aim of‎ this paper is to give an overview of the historical development of the international‎ framework for the equal participation of women in politics. Particularly,‎ this paper analyses how two international entities – the UN and the EU – contribute‎ to overcoming the gender-gap in politics, and whether their activities‎ have influenced an increased participation of women in politics (descriptive‎ representation).‎

Women in Politics; Political Participation; Gender Equality; Descriptive Representation; EU; UN

Hrčak ID: 257155